The Gambia’s Yahya Jammeh, who pledged Saturday to step down, is one of a long list of African leaders forced out by coups, rebels or popular uprisings.
Here is a list of former African leaders compiled by AFP that were forced out of office because of their refusal to relinquish power.
1. LIBERIA: On August 11, 2003 Charles Taylor flees to Nigeria under pressure from the international community and a rebellion.
2. MADAGASCAR: On March 17, 2009 Andry Rajoelina seizes power from then president Marc Ravalomanana with the backing of the military.
3. TUNISIA: On January 14, 2011, under massive popular pressure, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia with his family after 23 years in power.
4. EGYPT: On February 11, 2011, after widespread protests, Hosni Mubarak resigns, ending his 30-year reign and handing power to the army.
On July 3, 2013, the military ousts Egypt’s first democratically-elected leader, the Islamist Mohamed Morsi, after large demonstrations against his one-year rule.
5. IVORY COAST: On April 11, 2011 Laurent Gbagbo is arrested after a more than four-month crisis due to his refusal to recognise the victory of Alassane Ouattara in the 2010 presidential election.
He is captured after 10 days of fighting in the economic capital Abidjan, during which the presidential residence is bombarded by UN and French forces.
6. LIBYA: On October 20, 2011, dictator Moamer Kadhafi is captured and killed while trying to flee Sirte, his home town and the last major city to fall nine months after NATO-backed rebels rose up against his regime.
7. MALI: On March 22, 2012, mutinous soldiers led by Captain Amadou Sanogo overthrow the Bamako government and detain President Amadou Toumani Toure, precipitating the fall of the north to Islamist rebels allied with Al-Qaeda.
8. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: On March 24, 2013, General Francois Bozize flees after 10 years in power when rebels from the Muslim-dominated group Seleka seize the presidential palace in Bangui. The Seleka are ousted in January 2014.
9. BURKINA FASO: On October 31, 2014 president Blaise Compaore flees the country after being ousted in a revolt sparked by his efforts to extend his 27-year hold on power.